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PET-Cult – Eu, Robô

No dia 24 de junho de 2014, às 19:00 o 3º PET-Cult aberto à comunidade aconteceu no auditório Fernão S. R. Germano do ICMC. O assunto contemplado foi o livro “Eu, Robô” de Isaac Asimov. A discussão contou com 3 convidados especializados na área de robótica, um professor e dois pós-graduandos. Além disso, vários alunos também estavam presentes. Dentre os tópicos discutidos estavam a confiabilidade nas máquinas e robôs, o mitos da automatização e desemprego, aprendizado computacional e linguagem natural, os avanços da ciência e as máquinas melhores que humanos e as leis da robótica.

  • Confiabilidade nas máquinas e robôs: alguns tipos de equipamentos automatizados foram criticados como software, carros e portões. Foi contado um caso pelo professor Osório sobre um carro que desligou no meio de uma rodovia super movimentada o qual poderia ter resultado em um acidente grave.
  • Automatização e desemprego: foi levantada a questão dos robôs roubando os empregos dos humanos, e foi discutido como os empregos se transformam, tornando-sesendo até mais prazerosos do que os que podem ser automatizados.
  • Aprendizado computacional e linguagem natural: foi lembrado do recente bot que obteve a maior nota até hoje no Teste de Turing, mas mesmo assim essas simulações não alcançaram características humanas e, provavelmente ainda vão demorar para conseguir isso. Fernando Asevedo comentou ainda sobre sistemas bio-inspirados que aprendem com a inspiração em feromônios, neurônios, genes, mas que ainda assim são limitados pelos exemplos com os quais aprendem. Se a base de dados não for bem escolhida, o robô pode aprender de forma errada. Foi citado o exemplo que foi construído em São Carlos, na Ufscar de uma máquina de aprendizado finito que utiliza a web para chegar perto do conhecimento humano, resolvendo ambiguidades com auxílio de outras pessoas viaz twitter: https://twitter.com/cmunell. Por outro lado, Pedro Balange comentou que o computador aprende com textos porém há limitações, pois a língua é viva e adaptável, e diferente do livro em que os robôs conseguem capturar nuances de linguagem e sentimentos, não há nada no estado atual da ciência que alcance esse tipo de interpretação ainda. Foi lembrado que mesmo que achemos que os avanços possam ser lentos ou não acontecerem, vários foram bastante marcantes nos últimos anos, como o reconhecimento de face que hoje é praticamente um problema resolvido, sendo que é mais eficiente reconhecer faces com a ajuda de um programa computacional do que por uma pessoa.

Platéia do PET-Cult Por último, vários tópicos a serem pensados foram levantados, como as três leis da robótica impostas por Asimov. Para os pesquisadores elas são irreais pois atualmente as máquinas não são capazes de reconhecer situações de perigo para si mesmas ou para humanos. E, para o professor Osório, as leis ainda devem ser discutidas, porém há sempre um caso particular. Uma lei que, para ele, deveria ser incluída e seria a lei n° 0, seria a necessidade de sempre ser possível desligar um robô, mas isso acabaria abrindo a necessidade de uma lei 0.1 que define quem teria o direito de desligar o robô, e assim por diante. Essa foi uma discussão bastante proveitosa para os participantes ali presentes, os quais fizeram perguntas e estavam em grande sintonia com os pesquisadores.

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